Four Iranian fighters killed in air strike on Syrian air base

Four Iranian military personnel were killed in an air strike on a Syrian air base on Sunday, Iran’s Fars news agency said, as Syria and its main allies Iran and Russia blamed Israel for carrying out the attack.

Israel has not confirmed or denied mounting the raid, but Israeli officials said the Tiyas, or T-4, air base near Homs was being used by troops from Iran, and that Israel would not accept such a presence in Syria by its arch foe.

The Revolutionary Guards, Iran’s most powerful military force have been fighting in support of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad for several years. More than 1,000 Iranians have been killed in Syria, including senior members of the Guards.

Alert Risk Zone January: World Incident Report

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details    
1 Bombings 0 3 Pakistan Five civilians and three security officials were injured in two bomb attacks in Chaman.    
1 Bombing 0 2 Philippines Two soldiers from the 57th IB were injured when an improvised explosive device went off some 50 meters from the provincial hospital.    
1 Ambush 1 2 Afghanistan A district police chief has been killed in a Taliban attack in the western Farah province. Two other policemen were wounded in the attack in Pusht-e Rod district.    
1 Bombing 3 0 Nigeria At least three people have been confirmed killed in a blast in Nigeria’s northeastern town of Madagali.    
1 Shooting 2 0 Egypt Two Egyptian Christians were shot dead by a gunman as they celebrated the New Year at a liquor store.    
2 Bombings 0 12 Pakistan As many as 12 Frontier Corps soldiers were injured in an explosion in Quetta.    
2 Shooting 1 0 India A Central Reserve Police Force jawan was killed after receiving bullet injury in head during exchange of fire between Naxalites at hills of Chakarbandha on the border of Gaya and Aurangabad districts.    
2 Car bombing 0 3 Afghanistan Three police officers were wounded when an explosive was detonated in a police car in Kabul.    
2 Shooting 5 0 Kenya Five Kenyan policemen were killed in an attack on their vehicle in the county of Mandera, Kenya by Al-Shabaab militants.    
3 Shooting 3 0 Iraq Three Iraqi lawyers were shot dead by Islamic State militants on a Mosul road.    
3 Suicide bombing 15 1 Nigeria 14 civilians were killed when a suspected Boko Haram militant blew himself up at a mosque in Gamboru, Nigeria. Only the muezzin has survived.    
3 Bombing 0 3 Iraq An explosive charge planted by Islamic State militants at Al-Qa’im district in Anbar went off while a police patrol was passing by the area, leaving three security men wounded.    
3 Shooting, clashes 1 2 Iraq A tribal fighter was killed, while two police personnel were wounded in confrontations with Islamic State members, northwest of Kirkuk.    
3 Bombing 2 4 Afghanistan At least two civilians were killed and four others were wounded in an explosion triggered by a roadside bomb in southern Helmand province of Afghanistan.    
4 Shooting 3 0 Afghanistan Taliban shot dead three Afghan Security personnel in western Farah province.    
4 Suicide bombing 21 30 Afghanistan At least 20 people have been killed in a suicide bombing that targeted a mobile police checkpoint in Kabul. As many as 30 others were injured in the incident.    
5 Bombing 1 2 Somalia An African Union peacekeeper was killed, and two others were wounded in a landmine explosion in central Somalia.    
5 Shooting 2 0 Somalia Assailants shot and killed two civilians at Koodka neighbourhood in Mogadishu.    
5 Shooting 2 0 Somalia Two men, including a prominent local traditional elder have been assassinated by gunmen in Afgoye district in Lower Shabelle region.    
5 Ambush 0 6 Myanmar Rohingya insurgents ambushed a military convoy in Myanmar’s Rakhine State, wounding six members of the security forces.    
6 Shooting 1 0 India Naxalites gunned down the village sarpanch of Chindugarh village near Koleng in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh.    
6 Bombing 4 2 India Four Indian policemen were killed and two others wounded in a bomb attack in the city of Sopore    
6 Shooting, executions 14 7 Senegal At least 14 people were killed and seven injured when gunmen open fire in the region of Casamance, in southern Senegal.    
7 Bombing 1 7 Iraq An explosive charge went off near an overcrowded market at al-Yusufiyah area in southern the Iraqi capital, leaving three people injured. Later, another explosive device was detonated near a café in the neighborhood of al-Saheroon in southeast Baghdad, killing one person and injuring four others.    
7 Bombing 1 1 Iraq A policeman was killed while another was injured in a landmine explosion at Al-Qa’im district in Anbar.    
7 Car bombings 34 70 Syria At least 34 people were killed and 70 others injured in four explosions in Syria’s northwestern city of Idlib.    
7 Shooting 3 8 Afghanistan At least three people were killed and eight others wounded when insurgents stormed a security checkpoint in Afghanistan’s eastern Kunar province.    
7 Shooting 9 20 Afghanistan At least nine Afghan army soldiers were killed and 20 others wounded after Taliban militants attacked an army camp in Uruzgan province, south of Afghanistan.    
8 Shooting 1 0 Cameroon At least one civilian was killed in an attack by members of the terror group Boko Haram in Cameroon’s Far North region.    
8 Grenade attack 0 2 Somalia At least two Somali soldiers were injured in a grenade attack on an army checkpoint outside Beledweyne, the regional capital of Hiran.    
8 Shooting, kidnapping 20 15 Nigeria Gunmen on motorbikes opened fire on a group of loggers collecting firewood at Kaje village, near the Borno state capital, Maiduguri. 20 People were killed in the attack and 15 others are missing and presumed kidnapped by the attackers.    
9 Bombing 0 3 Somalia A bomb explosion in the heart of Mogadishu, the Somali capital has wounded at least three government soldiers aboard a military vehicle.    
9 Suicide bombing 8 23 Pakistan A bomb went off in the center of the Pakistani city of Quetta, capital of the province of Balochistan, killing seven people and wounding 23.    
9 Shooting 1 0 West Bank A drive-by shooting took place in the Northern West Bank leaving one Israeli, a rabbi, dead    
9 Bombing 1 3 Philippines A soldier was killed while two civilians were injured when a suspected Islamic State-inspired Moro armed group set off two separate roadside bombs in Maguindanao.    
10 Bombing 0 1 Iraq One civilian was injured in a bomb blast in southeastern Miqdadiyah, Diyala    
10 Bombing 0 6 Thailand Six members of a ranger patrol were hurt when a roadside bomb exploded as they went by in Nong Chik district.    
10 Suicide car bombing 4 3 Yemen At least three Yemenis were killed in a suicide car bomb attack that targeted a military vehicle in Yemen’s southeastern Shabwah province. Three Yemeni soldiers were also injured in the incident.    
10 Shooting 3 0 Cameroon At least three people were killed in an attack in Cameroon’s Far North region.    
10 Shooting 5 2 Afghanistan Five personnel of Afghan Local Police were killed and two others wounded following an attack from the Taliban militants in the country’s troubled northern province of Kunduz.    
10 Shooting 1 0 Colombia A Colombian soldier was shot dead by a ELN sniper in the department of Arauca.    
11 Suicide bombing 1 3 Mali Three French soldiers of the Barkhane force were wounded, one of them seriously, by a suicide bomber in eastern Mali.    
11 Shooting 6 0 Afghanistan Six policemen have been killed in a Taliban attack in Nawa district of southern Helmand province.    
11 Mortar attack 1 Several Somalia At least one civilian was killed and several were wounded after mortar rounds landed near the Presidential Palace in Mogadishu.    
11 Stabbing 0 4 France A German prisoner jailed for his involvement in the Djerba bombing in 2002 assaulted four guards at the Vendin-le-Vieil prison while shouting “Allahu Akbar”. One of the guards was hospitalized for a head wound.    
11 Suicide bombings 2 2 Cameroon Two suicide bombers, alleged members of the Islamist group Boko Haram, detonated their bombs in the Ouro-Kessoum district of Amchide in Cameroon, injuring two others.    
11 Shootings, kidnapping 4 3 Cameroon Four people were killed and two others kidnapped in separate overnight attacks in the far north of Cameroon. Another one was wounded.    
12 Shooting 3 0 Afghanistan A Taliban attack has killed three policemen in western Farah province.    
12 Shooting 3 1 Iraq Islamic State militants killed three family members in their house in the oil-rich province of Kirkuk.    
12 Suicide bombing 3 6 Afghanistan Two people were killed and six others injured in a suicide blast in Chaghcharan, the capital of western Ghor province.    
12 Assassination 1 0 Paraguay A menonite farmer (called Abraham Fehr) was found dead in San Pedro Departament, Northern of Paraguay.    
13 Suicide bombing 8 24 Iraq A suicide bombing in Baghdad has killed eight and wounded up to 24 others.    
13 Shooting, arson 1 5 Kenya One person was killed and five police injured when Al-Shabaab militants attacked a convoy of buses at Nongoro area along the Lamu-Malindi highway. Two Toyota land cruisers used by the police were destroyed during the incident.    
13 Shooting, arson 7 0 Mozambique Islamists attacked a community from the administrative post of Olumbe, Palma district and killed seven people and burned down houses.    
13 Shooting 1 0 Egypt Gunmen have shot dead a Christian man in the turbulent north of the Sinai Peninsula    
13 Kidnapping 0 1 Colombia Militants of the ELN kidnapped a contractor of Ecopetrolun in the Departament of Arauca.    
14 Bombing 0 5 Somalia At least five Somali soldiers were wounded when their military vehicle hit a landmine in Mogadishu.    
14 Shooting 2 0 Somalia Al-Shabaab fighters attacked a remote Somali army base north of the capital Mogadishu, killing at least two Somali government soldiers.    
14 Missile attack 1 3 Turkey A Turkish soldier was killed and three others wounded after an explosion of a guided missile shot by PKK militants at a Turkish military base in Hakkari province.    
14 Bombings 4 0 Iraq Four Turkish soldiers were killed in bomb explosions in Al Zab.    
14 Shooting 1 0 Egypt A Coptic Christian man has been shot dead by gunmen in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula    
14 Shooting 6 4 Afghanistan Six Afghan National Army soldiers were killed and two others surrendered to the Taliban in the Qaisar district of northwestern Faryab province. Separately, four policemen have been injured in a Taliban attack on a police check-post in the Chalgazai area of Qaisar.    
14 Ambush 7 3 Afghanistan At least seven police force members were killed in a Taliban ambush in Farah province. Another three police force members were wounded.    
15 Suicide bombings 40 105 Iraq 38 people were killed and at least 105 others wounded in two suicide bombings at Baghdad’s al-Tayaran Square.    
15 Shooting, arson 4 0 Cameroon Four people were killed in Mayo-Tsanaga, a region of the Far North of Cameroon, during an attack by Boko Haram. The assailants left after burning down dozens of huts and a church    
15 Shooting 3 5 Democratic Republic of Congo Three Democratic Republic of Congo soldiers were killed while repelling an attack in the eastern Beni region by ADF Ugandan extremist rebels. Five others were wounded.    
15 Ambush 5 6 Pakistan At least five security personnel lost their lives and six others were injured when a vehicle carrying them turned over after being ambushed in Balochistan’s Kech district.    
15 Shooting, kidnapping 6 5 Nigeria Six people were killed by gunmen who also abducted five girls who joined the loggers to collect firewood from the Jinene woods.    
15 Shooting 5 2 Nigeria Five people, including two suspected fighters of the terror group Boko Haram, were killed in an attack near Nigeria’s northeastern town of Madagali. Two others were critically injured.    
16 Shooting 1 0 Pakistan A police constable was gunned down by gunmen on Quetta’s Raisani Road.    
16 Shooting 1 0 Kosovo A drive-by shooting outside an office in North Mitrovica killed the head politician of the Kosovo Serb party called Freedom, Democracy, Justice, Oliver Ivanović.    
16 Mortar attack 5 45 Afghanistan At least five people were killed in a mortar attack on a market in northern Afghanistan. 45 people, including women and children, were also wounded in the attack in Khwaja Sabz Push district of Faryab Province.    
16 Execution 1 0 Afghanistan Taliban militants have beheaded an Afghan Local Police member in the Mohammad Agha district of central Logar province.    
16 Suicide bombing, shooting 3 0 Pakistan A senior officer known for leading raids on militant hideouts escaped assassination when a suicide bomber riding on a motorcycle blew himself up near his vehicle in the port city of Karachi. The bomber had an unknown number of accomplices who opened fire at the car after the explosion. Guards returned fire, killing two of the gunmen.    
16 Suicide bombing 3 12 Cameroon At least two civilians were killed and a dozen others injured in a suicide attack near a mosque in the Far North Region.    
17 Shooting 0 1 Iraq A policeman was injured in a sniper attack by the militant Islamic State group in Baqubah, the capital of Diyala province.    
17 Bombing 2 7 Iraq Two Iraqi police officers were killed and seven others injured in a bomb blast in Diyala province.    
17 Suicide bombings 14 65 Nigeria Two suspected Boko Haram suicide bombers killed 12 people and injured 65 others in an attack in the northeastern Nigerian city of Maiduguri.    
17 Shooting 7 10 Niger Suspected Boko Haram fighters killed at least seven soldiers in an attack on a military post in Niger’s southeastern Diffa region. Ten others were injured in the attack.    
17 Bombing 1 4 Egypt A police captain was killed and four conscripts were injured after terrorists detonated an explosive device on the International Coastal Road.    
17 Shooting 1 2 West Bank Israeli special forces shot and killed an armed Palestinian man suspected to have been behind a drive-by shooting terror attack that killed Rabbi Raziel Shevach near a West Bank settlement outpost. Two Israeli special forces members were wounded during the raid.    
17 Shootings 8 0 Afghanistan Eight police and Afghan National Army soldiers have been killed in attacks on security posts in the capital and Anar Dara district of western Farah province.    
18 Shooting 2 0 Pakistan Gunmen shot dead a mother and her daughter who were part of a polio vaccination team in Quetta.    
18 Shooting 8 2 Afghanistan At least eight policemen were killed and two others wounded when Taliban attacked a security check post in Helmand province.    
18 Shooting 5 0 Nigeria Boko Haram jihadists have killed five people in an attack on a village in Adamawa state, northeast Nigeria.    
19 Bombings 0 0 Philippines Two explosions rocked Barangay Semba, likely the handwork of the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters. No one was hurt in the twin blasts but shrapnel hit the gate of a nearby house and several trees in the area.    
19 Bombing 1 2 Colombia Uniformed soldiers who were in an army base in the municipality of Teorama, Norte de Santander, were attacked in an unexpected attack by members of the ELN guerrillas. One soldier was killed and two more were injured.    
19 Grenade attack 0 8 India Eight policemen were injured after terrorists hurled a grenade at Tehsil office in south Kashmir’s Pulwama town.    
19 Vehicular attack 0 3 West Bank A Palestinian driver rammed IDF soldiers at a checkpoint near Qasr el Yahud in the West Bank, lightly injuring three men.    
19 Shooting 22 20 Democratic Republic of Congo 22 soldiers were killed in Democratic Republic of Congo’s volatile eastern borderlands where the army is battling Ugandan Islamist rebels. More than 20 other Congolese soldiers were also wounded after gunmen launched an attack during the night near the town of Eringeti in North Kivu province.    
20 Grenade attack 0 0 India Terrorists hurled a grenade at a police station in Jammu and Kashmir’s Shopian district. No person was injured in the explosion.    
20 Bombing 0 1 India A policeman was injured after Naxalites triggered an improvised explosive device near a market in Chhattisgarh’s insurgency-hit Dantewada district.    
20 Shooting 18 0 Afghanistan Seventeen members of the public uprising forces and a local police commander were killed in an attack by the Taliban in Balkh province.    
20-21 Shooting, arson, hostage taking 46 22 Afghanistan Gunmen launched an attack on the Inter-Continental Hotel Kabul, according officials from Afghanistan’s Ministry of Interior Affairs. More than 100 people have been freed from the hotel and six gunmen have been killed. 40 people are confirmed dead and at least 22 have been injured. Taliban claimed responsibility, and the Afghan officials said that Haqqani Network militants carried out the attack.    
21 Bombing 12 1 Afghanistan A roadside bomb has killed at least 12 civilians in the western Herat province. A 13th person was wounded in the explosion, which struck a vehicle in the Gulran district.    
21 Bombing 4 3 Afghanistan Four Afghan National Army soldiers have been killed and three others injured in a Taliban attack in the Nahri Saraj district of Helmand province.    
21 Shooting 7 1 Afghanistan Seven policemen were killed and an eighth wounded after Taliban militants stormed their check posts in the Garmsir district of southern Helmand province.    
21 Shooting 1 0 Pakistan Armed assailants shot dead a former police officer, who was fired over the 2011 killing of five Chechen women, in a hit-and-run attack in Quetta.    
21 Shooting 3 0 Democratic Republic of Congo Suspected Ugandan Islamist rebels killed three civilians in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.    
21 Shooting, arson 1 0 Colombia A caravan made up of members of the National Protection Unit, along with members of the FARC political party, who were returning from a meeting in the village of El Oasis, was attacked by gunfire in the department of Arauca. One of the vehicles that was part of the caravan was incinerated and a civilian who was part of an oil company in the sector was killed in the attack.    
22 Bombing 3 34 Thailand A motorcycle bomb killed three civilians and wounded two dozen others at a bustling morning market in Yala in Thailand’s insurgency-hit south.    
22 Bombing 2 4 Iraq A bomb planted by Islamic State inside a house in central Rawa district in Anbar exploded once a six-strong family entered it following a long period of displacement, leaving two of the family members dead and four others injured.    
22 Grenade attack 0 1 India A civilian was injured in a grenade attack by terrorists who were targetting the security forces in Pampore in Jammu and Kashmir.    
22 Grenade attack 0 1 India A policeman was injured after terrorists lobbed a grenade near Baramulla Police station in Jammu and Kashmir.    
23 Bombing 4 6 Somalia Four people have been killed and six others wounded in a remote-controlled improvised explosive device explosion near Mogadishu.    
23 Car bombings 41 80 Libya A twin car bombing outside a mosque in Benghazi left at least 41 people dead and 80 injured. No group has claimed responsibility for the bombing, but many assumed it was the work of remnants of an Islamic State in Iraq and Syria group faction largely driven out of Libya.    
24 Shooting, suicide car bombing 6 27 Afghanistan A complex attack began with a suicide car bomb outside the Save The Children offices in the city of Jalalabad, followed by gunmen entering the compound and fighting Afghan special forces. At least six people were killed and 27 others were wounded in the attack.    
24 Shooting 4 7 India Four police personnel, including two sub-inspectors, were killed and seven others injured in a gun-fight with Naxals in Chhattisgarh’s Narayanpur district.    
24 Shooting 3 0 Mali Two Malian customs officers have been killed in a suspected jihadist attack at a market in the small village of Toubakoro.    
24 Shooting 3 2 India Two militants and a teenage boy were killed and two girls critically injured during a gunfight between militants and government forces in Chaigund village of south Kashmir’s Shopian.    
25 Car bombing 0 0 Iraq A car bomb went off near a Shia mosque in a southern suburb of Kirkuk, causing damage to the holy site. No casualties were reported.    
25 Bombing 26 Several Mali A landmine explosion blew up a civilian passenger vehicle in central Mali, killing 26 people and wounding several others.    
25 Shooting 9 0 Mali In Youwarou, in Central Mali’s Mopti region, Malian armed forces killed seven terrorists. Two Malian soldiers were also killed in the operation.    
25 Bombing 2 1 Philippines Two civilians were killed while another was injured in an improvised bomb explosion in the middle of a ricefield in Datu Piang town in Maguindanao.    
25 Shooting, bombing 1 2 Philippines Communist insurgents killed an Army officer and wounded 2 soldiers in a firefight in Davao City, in southern Philippines.    
26 Rocket attack 7 3 Afghanistan Six children and an adult civilian were killed when a rocket hit their home in Ghazni Province. Three other people were injured in the attack.    
26 Suicide car bombing 5 13 Afghanistan At least four people were killed and thirteen others injured when a suicide car bomb exploded in Kandahar.    
26 Grenade attack 0 0 India Terrorists hurled a grenade at a police station in Jammu and Kashmir’s Pulwama district. No casualty or injury has been reported.    
26 Shooting, suicide bombing 4 5 Nigeria At least three people were killed when Boko Haram attacked the Hyambula village in northeast Adamawa state. Five others were injured in the attack.    
27 Suicide car bombing 1 6 Afghanistan At least six security force members were wounded when a suicide bomber in a Toyota Corolla detonated his explosives in the Nad Ali district of Helmand Province.    
27 Suicide car bombing 103 235 Afghanistan Least 103 people were killed and 235 others injured when a Taliban suicide bomber exploded an ambulance laden with explosives near Sidarat Square in central Kabul where several government offices are located.    
27 Shooting 16 22 Mali 14 people were killed and 22 wounded in an attack on a camp in Soumpi, in Mali’s restive north. Two terrorists have also been killed.    
27 Car bombing 0 28 Ecuador 28 people were injured in an attack on a police station in San Lorenzo, in Northern Ecuador.    
27 Bombing 5 42 Colombia At least five police officers were killed and 42 others injured in a bombing attack that targeted a police station in the northern coastal city of Barranquilla.    
27 Bombing 2 1 Colombia In the town of Buenavista, Santa Rosa del Sur, an explosive device was hurled against the police substation in that area. The incident left two police officers dead and one injured.    
27 Bombing, shooting 2 3 Kenya Two KDF soldiers were killed after their truck run over an Improvised Explosive Device at Handaro, Holugho sub-county, Garissa county. Three other soldiers, who tried to jump off the vehicle, were reportedly shot at close range by the suspected militias and were seriously wounded.    
27 Vehicular attack 0 1 Israel An IDF soldier sustained minor injuries in a car ramming attack near Herzliya.    
27 Shooting 1 0 Somalia Al-Shabaab militants have shot and killed an assistant judge in Wanlaweyn district in Somalia’s Southern Lower Shabelle region.    
28 Rocket attack, shooting 5 Several Mali Five Malian soldiers were killed and several others injured in an attack on a military base in Ménaka, in northeastern Mali.    
28 Bombing 0 5 Colombia At least five people were injured in an attack against the police in the metropolitan area of the Colombian city of Barranquilla.    
29 Shooting, suicide bombings 15 16 Afghanistan Eleven Afghan soldiers were killed and sixteen others were injured when five Islamic State militants attacked an army post. Four attackers were later killed by the security forces, and another was arrested.    
29 Shooting 2 0 Burkina Faso Gunmen have killed two policemen who were patrolling a market in Burkina Faso’s northern Baraboulé district.    
29 Shooting 1 3 Iraq Two IS extremists attacked a Hashd al-Shaabi checkpoint in the Hawija district, southern Kirkuk Province, killing one fighter and wounding three others.    
29 Bombing 1 1 Iraq One member of the Iraqi Federal Police was killed, and another one was wounded during a raid on a house in a village near the al-Multaqa sub-district, southwest of Kirkuk.    
29 Shooting 2 0 Niger At least two soldiers were killed overnight while fighting off an attack by suspected Boko Haram jihadists in southeast Niger.    
29 Ambush 4 0 Somalia A Somali army colonel and three soldiers were killed following an attack on a convoy by Al-Shabaab militants in Bay region in Southern Somalia.    
30 Bombing 8 1 Pakistan At least eight people of a family were killed and another one injured as a result of a bomb explosion in the Maqbal area of Upper Kurram Agency.    
30 Shooting 5 4 Nigeria Boko Haram jihadists killed at least five loggers in northeast Nigeria. Four others were injured in the attack.    
30 Suicide car bombing 23 Several Yemen About 22 newly-recruited Yemeni soldiers were killed when a suicide car bombing struck a military checkpoint in the southeastern province of Shabwah. Several others were wounded in the attack.    
30 Bombing 0 2 Iraq An explosive charge planted by Islamic State militants inside a house in the Old City of Mosul went off, injuring a man and his wife.    
30 Bombing 1 3 Somalia A roadside bomb hit a military vehicle carrying Puntland soldiers in the vicinity of Galgala hills of Bari region, killing at least one soldier, wounding 3 others.    
30 Bombing 1 2 Syria A civilian support worker for the Turkish Armed Forces was killed in a terrorist car bomb attack on a military convoy in Syria’s northwestern Idlib province. One Turkish soldier and another civilian employee were also injured in the explosion.    
31 Bombing 2 7 Mali Two Malian soldiers were killed and seven wounded when their vehicle hit an improvised explosive device near Gao in northern Mali.    
31 Shooting, bombing 3 2 Iraq Islamic State members have assassinated a former general of the Iraqi military in the southwest of Kirkuk. In another incident, two police officers were killed and another two injured while attempting to defuse an explosive device.    
31 Bombing 1 3 Iraq A civilian has been killed and three others have been injured when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb in the Al-Taji district of Baghdad province.    
31 Suicide bombings 6 44 Nigeria Four people were killed and 44 others sustained injuries in multiple suicide bomb attacks at a Konduga community and the Dalori Internally Displaced Persons camp.    

Congo refugees in Rwanda say soldiers shoot and wound at least two during food protest

Congolese refugees in Rwanda said soldiers shot at them and wounded at least two people on Tuesday as the refugees tried to march out of their camp in protest at a cut in food rations.

A government minister denied the account.

Refugees said around 2,000 people from the 17,000-strong Karongi camp in western Rwanda marched out of the camp to protest a 25 percent cut that began last month in the rations provided by the U.N. refugee agency (UNHCR).

The agency made the cuts saying it faced funding problems.

On Israeli border’s airstrikes dealt ‘severe blows’ to Iran and Syria

Israel’s prime minister said Sunday his country delivered “severe blows” to Iranian and Syrian forces and vowed to take further action against its adversaries following the most serious Israeli engagement in Syria since the war there erupted almost seven years ago.

Benjamin Netanyahu’s words to his Cabinet came a day after Israel carried out a wave of airstrikes in Syria. Israel ordered the airstrikes after it intercepted an Iranian drone that had infiltrated its airspace, and an Israeli F-16 was downed upon its return from Syria.

“Yesterday we dealt severe blows to the Iranian and Syrian forces,” Netanyahu said. “We made it unequivocally clear to everyone that our rules of action have not changed one bit. We will continue to strike at every attempt to strike at us.

This has been our policy and it will remain our policy.” Israel has tried to stay on the sidelines since civil war broke out in neighboring Syria in 2011, though it has periodically carried out airstrikes against suspected weapons shipments believed to be headed for Lebanese Hezbollah, the Iranian and Syrian-allied militant group.


Photo:Jalaa Marey / AFP

Five infants die in Guinea unto post-election riots.

At least five small children have died in a fire in Guinea linked to post-election riots in a town in the center of the country, government officials said on Wednesday.

The children died in Dinguiraye on Tuesday, said Minister of Territorial Administration Bourema Conde and blamed their deaths on the fighting.

In a statement on state television, he did not specify what caused the fire and gave no details of the children who he said were infants. A gendarmerie spokesman said: “There were five children who died in the clashes.”

The violence is linked to opposition fears that President Alpha Conde may seek to change the constitution to seek a third term at elections in 2020. Conde has declined to comment on his intentions.

Clashes broke out between young people wielding clubs and knives in several cities after opposition leader Cellou Dalein Diallo alleged fraud in Sunday’s long-delayed vote for mayors and neighborhood chiefs.

Violence has also been reported since Sunday in the capital Conakry, where young people erected barricades and burned tires in some suburbs, and in the nearby city of Kindia, where a young man died on Monday in confrontations with security forces.



What is happening in Honduras?

Honduras has entered a political crisis that is turning increasingly violent following the disputed results of the 26 November general elections.

In a climate of deep mistrust between the two contenders – President Juan Orlando Hernández, from the conservative National Party, and Salvador Nasralla, left-wing opposition contender and TV personality – the final count concluded a week after the poll, with President Hernández emerging victorious.

However, initial results in the early hours of Monday 27 November, when over half the votes had been counted, showed the opposition on course for victory with Nasralla claiming a 5 per cent lead. After three further days of vote counting, interrupted by a five-hour outage of the computerised voting system, the Supreme Electoral Court announced that President Hernández had taken the lead.

The sudden switch in the presidential race has elicited disbelief and fury in opposition circles.

Nasralla’s Alliance party, which insists the entire electoral process has been compromised, refused to participate as an observer in the count of the last remaining votes. The opposition is demanding a more extensive recount, and has until Wednesday to lodge formal complaints against the election.
Opposition anger has ignited across the country, leading to blocking of roads, running clashes in major cities between protesters and security forces throughout last week, as well as more peaceful displays of outrage, such as the large marches last Sunday and a cacerolazo (pot-banging protest).

Incidents of looting and attacks on businesses during the protests suggest the political crisis has been affected by Honduras’ exceptionally high levels of criminal violence.

Its homicide rate, at 59 murders per 100,000 habitants each year, makes it one of the world’s most lethal countries. Doubts over the probity of the electoral process reflect broader concerns as to the increasing power of the executive branch. On Friday 30 November the government declared a state of emergency and a curfew in an effort to contain the unrest, which has claimed at least three lives according to local media. The army has been granted special permission to detain anyone suspected of insurrection.

Why have electoral authorities taken so long to process the results?

The president of the Supreme Electoral Court is a member of the ruling National Party and a close ally of President Hernández, inviting public speculation as to the latter’s influence over the drawn-out count. “Are we going to give them the power? In exchange for what?”, said one of Hernández’s allies in a WhatsApp audio message sent to his supporters the day after the elections. The opposition’s accusations are based on a series of circumstances that they consider to be evidence of fraud: the electoral institution took nine hours to provide the first official results; the swing in favour of President Hernández started on Wednesday 29 after the electronic counting system stopped working; and there was a 20 per cent lower voter turnout in the country’s northern regions as compared to various southern regions, President Hernández’s heartland.

Although the Supreme Electoral Court will itself need to prove that its handling of the poll has been clean, doubts over the probity of the electoral process reflect broader concerns as to the increasing power of the executive branch. Described by Tegucigalpa diplomats as “a political fox”, President Hernández’s strategy over the last four years has been to accumulate power across state institutions, including electoral and judicial. His greatest feat in this respect was to quash the constitutional ban on re-election. Paradoxically, former President Manuel Zelaya was ousted in 2009 after trying to hold a referendum on the very same issue.

What has sparked this level of public outrage?

The fraud allegations have rekindled old political hostilities from the June 2009 coup d’état, when the army seized former President Zelaya while still in his pyjamas and sped him into exile. Since then, Honduras “has been on standby for eight years”, explains a veteran journalist. One side of the political divide is represented by President Juan Orlando Hernández, who is close to the Honduran military and the economic elites; the other is former President Zelaya, the brain of the opposition Alliance, who aspires to become a special presidential adviser to the political novice Nasralla.

Hernández has crafted an impressive public image over his term in office, promoting the country’s economic growth and reduced murder rate. Opposition supporters, on the other hand, refer to Honduras as “Juan Orlando’s dictatorship”, and denounce militarised public security, rampant corruption and systematic human rights abuses.

Sofìa Martinez Fernàndez

Analyst, Northern Triangle
Guatemala City, Guatemala
Photo: Orlando Sierra / AFP – Getty Images

Topic Mozambique

Mozambique witnessed a dramatic increase in political violence in October 2017.

The spike in violence stemmed from an apparent Islamist attack in the Cabo Delgado region, located in the far north of the country.

An attack by a group calling itself ‘Al Shabaab’ attacked three police stations in the coastal village Mocimboa da Praia resulting in 16 fatalities. The attackers appear to have no connection to the Somalian rebel group but instead appear to be locally embedded in Mocimboa da Praia (Morier-Genoud, 18 October 2017).

In a manner reminiscent of other Islamist groups on the continent, the attackers demanded the imposition of Sharia law in the area, the removal of children from secular education and refuse to pay state taxes (ibid.).

There are commonalities between this attack and other ongoing conflicts within Mozambique.

The Cabo Delgado region is rich in natural resources and the government has made large investments in developing the capital Pemba to expand the exploitation of offshore gas (Reuters, 21 August 2017). In spite of this investment, the region remains poor and has not benefitted from the economic boom of the 2000s (Morier-Genoud, 18 October 2017).

This is similar to the low-level conflict between the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO), the former rebel movement of the Mozambican Civil War and the current political opposition, and the ruling Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) partly stems from the government’s policy of resource extraction. RENAMO has demanded a more equitable sharing of the proceeds of natural resources, especially as many of the resources come from RENAMO’s political stronghold in the country’s central belt.

As violence in Cabo Delgado has increased, the peace talks between RENAMO and FRELIMO have prevented large-scale clashes between the groups in the Sofala, Zamebia and Manica regions.

President Felipe Nyusi’s overwhelming re-election as FRELIMO president has allowed him to side-line hawkish factions in his party and pursue peace negotiations with RENAMO (News24, 2 October 2017).

Where the violence in Cabo Delgado differs from previous conflicts is in the region’s general support of the government. The province has consistently supported FRELIMO in elections and Nyusi hails from the region (Lodge et al., 2002; Africa Watch, 26 October 2017). While the province may be represented by the president, many Muslims in the region feel disenfranchised by the FRELIMO government. In the post-independence period, FRELIMO attacked Islam as regressive in accordance with the party’s Marxist doctrine and more recent attempts to court the Islamic vote have fractured the party (Morier-Genoud, 18 October 2017).

The government has fostered close relationships with national Islamic organisations but they are informed by a hard-line Wahhabi doctrine and are prone to factionalism (ibid.).

The Cabo Delgado violence may not be indicative of a long-term trend, but failure by FRELIMO to address economic resentment in the peripheries and to effectively represent the country’s Muslim population could result in future attacks.


Daniel Wigmore-Shepherd

Research Analyst at ACLED-Africa

China: troops in Syria to fight alongside Assad

China becomes increasingly concerned with the presence of Islamic militants in the East Turkestan region.

For this reason China is planning to send troops to Syria to aid President Bashar Al-Assad’s forces.

The Syrian regime has also claimed that thousands of  fighters of an ethnic Muslim minority, that Chinese authorities regularly accuse of terrorism, have arrived in Syria illegally.

Eastern Ukraine: More than 20 Killed and Wounded

More than 20 Killed and Wounded in Fights in Eastern Ukraine.

Five government soldiers died in Eastern Ukraine in fighting with pro-Russian separatists, reports Interfax-Ukraine, writes

The Ukrainian authorities add that four other people were injured in the fighting in the Donbass.

Their condition is severe.

The pro-Russian forces have stormed positions of the Ukrainian army.

Seven enemy truce regime violations have been recorded across the front over the past day, including an armed collision, the press center of the Kiev-led anti-terrorist operation said, adding that eight separatists and nine civilians were injured in recent days.



Africa Special Report: Gender, Inclusion and Conflict

A number of recent studies explore the relationship between gender inequality and conflict and generally find that higher gender inequality, or lower rates of inclusion, is associated with higher rates of conflict and violence.

However, efforts to increase inclusion ought to be accompanied by institutional and normative changes too if negative violent consequences are to be curtailed.
Studies find a link between unbalanced sex ratios (Hudson and den Boer, 2002, 2004), a ‘surplus’ of young men (Hudson et al., 2009), or large youth populations (Urdal, 2008) and a higher likelihood or level of conflict.

This vein of literature contends that gender inequality can impact conflict by increasing the capacity to mobilize for conflict, especially through the facilitation of the recruitment of young men (see GIWPS and PRIO, 2017; Forsberg and Olsson, 2016).

A more compelling argument, however, might be that gender inequality can impact conflict and violence through unequal gender norms (see GIWPS and PRIO, 2017; Forsberg and Olsson, 2016) as such norms may legitimize the use of force (Caprioli, 2005; see also: Caprioli 2000, 2003; Caprioli and Boyer, 2001).

In this vein, Hudson et al. (2009) point to the role of  patriarchy and its attendant violence,” and reason that, evolutionarily, improved female status can in turn lead to societies where males are “less likely to submit and yield to male coercive violence” (Hudson et al., 2009).

Global indices can be a helpful tool as they distill complex information into a single number: a useful instrument in assessing and comparing multidimensional issues across countries.

The new global Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Index—compiled by the Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security (GIWPS), in collaboration with the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)—offers a way to assess gender inequality and development in addition to peace and security. “The index incorporates three basic dimensions of well-being—inclusion (economic, social, political); justice (formal laws and informal discrimination); and security (at the family, community, and societal levels)—and captures and quantifies them through 11 indicators. … [And it finds that] countries are more peaceful and prosperous when women are accorded full and equal rights and opportunity” (GIWPS and PRIO, 2017).

The 2017/2018 WPS Index score for African states, overlaid with ACLED political violence data recorded thus far in 2017. Indeed, states with a higher WPS Index value, on average, seem to see fewer political violence events than those with a lower WPS Index value.
However, ‘inclusion’ alone is not enough. While gains are being made in women’s inclusion where it has long been lacking, this has often been met with a backlash. Berry (2015) notes that as the status of women in many societies grows, they may experience increased violence from men as men attempt to reassert their control through violence (see also: Vyas and Watts, 2008; Ahmed, 2008). A study by the ICRC found that “literate, educated and employed women experienced the highest rates of community violence, suggesting that men use violence as a way of repressing women’s increased status (Rombouts, 2006)” (Berry, 2015).

These trends can in turn point to the rise in political violence women face as opponents seek to discourage their greater participation in the political arena (Kishi, 2017) or their defying of the agendas of powerful male political elites (Berry, Bouka, and Kamuru, 2017). “Women around the world are attacked for being female and involved in politics … by men who wanted to punish or coerce their political choices or prevent them from participating in a political activity like voting or running for office” (Bardall, 2017).

In the recent Kenyan election, for example, more women ran for office than ever before—and they were, in turn, met with targeted and gendered violence (Berry et al., 2017). During the political primaries for the general election, Ann Kanyi, vying for her party’s nomination was dragged from her car and brutally beaten; during the assault, she was asked to quit politics (Wangui, 2017). “Other female candidates were robbed by men armed with machetes and batons (Muhindi, 2017), had their motorcades attacked and supporters killed (Nation, 2017), and were beaten and threatened with public stripping (Kerongo, 2017). … The goal: to turn back progress ushered in by a new gender quota, implemented as part of a 2010 constitutional overhaul, that has vaulted more women into positions of power in Kenya than ever before” (Berry et al., 2017).

In Burundi, during the 2015 political crisis, women were often targeted with sexual and gender-based violence due to their real or suspected party affiliation (or that of family members), lack of support for the president’s third mandate, or suspected participation in the protests against it (Human Rights Watch, 2016). (For more on the Burundi Crisis, see Raleigh, Kishi, and McKnight, 2016). Similar to the Kenyan case, soon before the 2015 political crisis began, Burundi was “one of few countries in the world to have adopted a gender quota for its legislature in an effort to promote the inclusion and participation of women in the political process” (IFES, 2014).

Similar spikes in gendered political violence were seen in Zimbabwe during election periods, where both women running for office as well as those participating in politics at the local-level were targets of violence (Kishi, 2017). Again, similarly, Zimbabwe too included a “special electoral quota system to increase women’s representation in Parliament” in its new constitution, approved in 2013 (UN Women, 2013).

All three of these countries are among the ‘more inclusive’ of African states as they fall within the top half of African states in terms of ranking by the WPS Index.

The establishment of gender quotas aiming to normalize the inclusion of women in politics is necessary. However, it is important that such steps are coupled with efforts to combat gender-based violence and the institutional and normative structures that allow for them. This means both strengthening the rule of law to protect women, while also dismantling the patriarchal structures in place that allow for such behavior as gendered violence (see also: Berry et al., 2017).

Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Libya, and South Sudan are not included in the WPS Index (due to data limitations) and are hence not included in the figures here.

Some degree of correlation is to be expected between the WPS Index and ACLED data, since ‘societal security’ is included in calculation of the index score. However, the WPS Index relies on a measure of conflict-related fatalities from the UCDP dataset, weighted by population, for its ‘societal security’ measure. Hence, looking at specific atomic events here—which include battles, remote violence, and violence against civilians—should be sufficiently different so as to avoid complete correlation here.

Roudabeh Kishi

Research Director at ACLED